• Grameen Phone in Bangladesh by Iqbal Quadir launched in March 1997, today 6m subscribers, countries largest telecoms operator(Grameen Electricity comes next) (through microloans). Better thn foreign aid: “Top down approaches do not work. The botleneck is at the top of the bottle.”
  • Vodaphone sold Japanese unit J-Phone (bought as 3rd largest operator in 2001), expected to sell 45% stake in Verizon Wireless. Failed to exploit economies of scale (due to different technology).
  • Name some expamples of business models that become threatened: Phones, Music labels, software companies, book stores